Unit Three-The Dynamic Crust
What You'll Learn 1:
- Why continental drift was not accepted when it was first proposed and what kinds of evidence lead to its acceptance.
- How Earth's tectonic plates interact.
- What causes tectonic plates to move.
Why It's Important 1:
Understanding the theory of plate tectonics is important because interactions between the enormous slabs of Earth's crust and rigid upper mantle results in the formation of many of Earth's surface features, including volcanoes and some mountain ranges. Many earthquakes are also caused by plate movements.
Key Vocabulary 1:
continental drift Pangaea isochron magnetic reversal magnetometer paleomagnetism seafloor spreading convergent boundary divergent boundary rift valley subduction theory of plate tectonics transform boundary ridge push slab pull
Key Concepts/Understandings 1:
- Describe one piece of early evidence that led people to suggest that Earth's continents may have once been joined.
- Discuss evidence of continental drift.
- Explain why continental drift was not accepted when first proposed.
- Summarize the evidence that led to the discovery of seafloor spreading.
- Explain the significance of magnetic patterns on the seafloor.
- Explain the process of seafloor spreading.
- Explain the theory of plate tectonics.
- Compare and contrast the three types of plate boundaries and the features associated with each.
- Explain the process of convection
- Summarize how convection in the mantle is related to the movements of tectonic plates.
- Compare and contrast the processes of ridge push and slab pull.
Many of Earth's internal processes help to shape out planet's surface. Volcanic activity within Earth and at its surface produce many of the mountains and rock formations on Earth.Key Vocabulary 2:
- How magma forms.
- What kind of features form as a result of igneous activity within Earth.
- How volcanoes form and how they can be classified.
viscosity batholith dike laccolith pluton sill stock caldera cinder-cone volcano composite volcano crater hot spot pyroclastic shield volcano tephra vent
Key Concepts/Understandings 2:
- Describe factors that affect the formation of magma.
- Compare and contrast the different types of magma.
- Expain how magma affects overlying crustal rocks.
- Compare and contrast intrusive igneous rock bodies.
- Describe the major parts of a volcano.
- Compare and contrast shield, cinder-cone, and composite volcanoes.
- Contrast the volcanism that occurs at plate boundaryies.
- Explain the relationship between volcanism and hot spots.
Earthquakes are natural phenomena that can cause vast amounts of damage as well as many deaths. Understanding what csues earthquaked is essential to our being prepared from these natural disasters.Key Vocabulary 3:
- What cause earthquakes and how they affect Earth's surface.
- How earthquakes and the destruction they cause are measured.
- What factors determine siesmic risk.
epicenter fault focus primary wave secondary wave strain stress surface wave seismogram seismometer magnitude modified Mercalli scale moment magnitude scale Richter scale seismic gap tsunami
Key Concepts/Understandings 3:
- Define stress and strain as they apply to rocks.
- Distinguish among the three types of faults.
- Contrast three types of seismic waves.
- Describe how a siesmometer works.
- Expalin how siesmic waves have been used to determine the structure and composition of Earth's interior.
- Compare and contrast earthquake magnitude and intesity and the scales used to measure.
- Expalin why data from at least three seismic stations are needed to locate an earthquake's epicenter.
- Describe siesmic belts.
- Discuss factors that affect the amount of damage done by an earthquake.
- Explain some of the factors considered in earthquake probability studies.
- Define seismic gaps.
All mountains rise above the surrounding land, yet each of these awesome structures is unique. Understanding the various processes involve in mountain building is critial to our understanding of the dynamic planet on which we live.Key Vocabulary 4:
- Why Earth's displaces the mantle on which it rests.
- How different processes create mountias that rise above Earth's surface.
isostasy isostatic rebound orogeny fault-block mountain pillow baslat uplifted mountains
Key Concepts/Understandings 4:
- Describe the elevation distribution of Earth's surface.
- Explain isostasy and how it pertains to Earth's montains.
- Describe how Earth;s crust responds to the addition and removal of mass.
- Compare and contrast the different typyes of mountains that form along convergent plate boundaries.
- Explain how the Appalachian Montains formed.
- Describe the montain ranges that form along ocean ridges.
- Compare and contrast uplifted and fault-block mountains.
- Describe the mountains that form as a result of hot spots in Earth's mantle.